On the surface it looks like life is getting more difficult for foreign enterprises in China. Although China remains one of the fastest growing economies in the world, double digit growth has been replaced by 7.7 percent growth in 2013. At the same time, a slowdown in demand for luxury products, greater scrutiny by Chinese regulators, and rising labor costs have created a perception that China has lost its allure for foreign companies. In fact the truth is quite the opposite.
China remains one of the most attractive destinations for foreign direct investment in the world. China’s share of global FDI stock has doubled in the last five years alone. According to the UN World Investment Report, in 1990, China’s share of global FDI stock excluding Hong Kong was ninth in the world below Mexico and Brazil. In 2012, China’s stock of foreign direct investment excluding Hong Kong was the third largest in the world, below only the United States and the European Union. China’s share of global FDI stock will continue to grow this year. Similar to 2012, slowing growth in China’s FDI stock this year is likely to be matched by even slower growth in the rest of the world, such as the European Union.
Foreign companies remain attracted to China because it still has superior returns. The income generated by foreign enterprises in China is among the highest in the world. For example, the returns generated by FDI stock in China averaged 9.4 percent between 2002 and 2012, compared with only 5.8 percent for investment in the United States. Even as the Chinese economy slowed last year, returns were still around 9.1 percent.
Foreign companies are also gaining more control over their investments in China than ever before. Whereas in the past most investment into China was confined to joint ventures today 76.2 percent of investment flows are in the form of wholly foreign owned investment.
Moreover, foreign companies can now invest in more diverse businesses in China. Where in the past the vast majority of investments were confined to the export manufacturing sector, today manufacturing represents only two-fifths foreign investment inflows while the service sector share is now over half of new FDI inflows, ranging from retail to business services. If the promises of the Shanghai FTZ are realized, the opportunities for foreign companies in the service sector could expand even further in the near future.
It is true as China rebalances some foreign firms – like their domestic counterparts – will need to adjust their business model. The gains from using labor cost savings for increasing profits in low-valued added export manufacturing have waned. Goods and services consumed domestically are increasingly competitive and require foreign firms to engage with local and national regulators to a greater degree than ever before. However, the growing anxieties have been more than compensated for in terms of opportunities in domestic services and high value added manufacturing in China. There are currently no signs that China will be knocked off its position as one of the leading destinations for foreign investment in the world.